Once the red wine is put into tanks and fermentation begins all of the solids—grape skins, pulp rise to the surface. This mass of solid matter is called must; however we refer to the floating section as “The Cap.” In order to maximize the extraction of color, flavor and structure we use one of several processes of cap management. There are many factors to consider when deciding how often to mix the cap, including the grape type, the growing season, fermentation temperature and whether or not the wine will have extended maceration.
Punch down - is a gentle process of submerging the skins that forms over fermenting red wine in order to improve the extraction of color, flavor and tannin structure. Punch downs are initiated before the yeast is added during cold soaking and then performed 2 to 3 times daily until the end of fermentation and sometimes beyond if extended maceration post fermentation is necessary to improve the structure and color stability of the wine. Because punch downs are the gentlest form of cap management it is generally exclusive to our reserve tier wines. A lot of work goes in to punching down several small lot ferments two to three times each day and therefor this input is focused on our best wines.
Pumpovers – This cap management method can be performed in a variety of ways. The process is to pump the juice from the racking valve, near the bottom of the tank, over the top of the tank and over the risen skins or cap. You can fit an attachment to the top of the tank that can irrigate the cap mechanically, or you can pump it over manually by holding on to the hose and directing the flow of the wine to wet the entire surface of the cap. This wetting process is where you maximize your extraction of flavor, color and texture.
Submerged Screen – This method involves installing a screen in the fermentation vessel to keep the cap submerged under the wine surface to maximize extraction. This system is very gentle; however, it is important to note that the skins will be very compact under the screen and the extracts will be minimal. Another cap management system will need to be incorporated to improve the extraction. I have used this system along with 2 punch downs daily and am very happy with the effect.
After the destemmer the wine is pumped into tanks to begin fermentation. The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage.
White wines are typically fermented without their skins and other solids, while red wines are fermented in contact with skins and other solids.
By putting grape juice into a container at the right temperature, adding yeast which turns the sugar in the juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide the grape juice will ferment.
During fermentation, yeasts transform sugars present in the juice into ethanol and carbon dioxide (as a by-product). The temperature and speed of fermentation are important considerations as well as the levels of oxygen present in the must at the start of the fermentation. The more sugars in the grapes the higher the potential alcohol level of the wine if the yeast is allowed to carry out fermentation to dryness. We will stop fermentation in some cases early in order to leave some residual sugars and sweetness in the wine for example our Riesling. This can be achieved by dropping fermentation temperatures to the point where the yeast are inactive and then sterile filtering the wine to remove the yeast.
Fermentation may be done in stainless steel tanks, in an open plastic vat or inside a wine barrel. All of our fermentation tanks are heated or cooled by a controlled glycol system that runs through jacketed tanks. Red wine fermentation requires temperatures to reach 78.8 - 86°F for the pigments to be extracted from the grape skins. It is common to warm the fermenting juice artificially to help this happen. This has to be done carefully, as yeast die quickly in the heat. White wine fermentation may require the fermenting juice to be cooled to 53.6 - 59°F to help preserve the delicate varietal characteristics. These flavor and aromatic compounds are destroyed in high temperatures.
On September 8th, 2 days after our Sauvignon Blanc was harvested, we harvested our Winemaker's Bloc Merlot. This fruit was crushed into 1 ton macro bins and allowed to settle for 24 hours. We will punch down the next day and add yeast to start the fermentation which will take about 10 days to complete to dryness which is the consumption of all of the sugar. We will then press the bins to a small vessel and then rack to barrels where the wine will undergo malic acid fermentation - the conversion of the harsh malic (apple) acid to smooth lactic (milk) acid. The wines will be racked 1-2 weeks post malolactic fermentation, eventually blended with other varietals and then aged for 1.5 to 2 years depending on flavor expression to make our signature 2017 Winemaker’s Bloc.
It is time now to talk about an important machine that we use to make wine. The destemmer plays a very important role in the whole process of making wine. This is how it works: The forklift feeds the hopper which feeds the destemmer which feeds the must pump which feeds the tank/bins.
We call it a destemmer (not destemmer/crusher) as we do not use the rollers that are used to crush the fruit. The destemming action is a gentle process. The destemming drum is designed such that it avoids maceration of the berries because we want to keep the berries whole. This is done with counter sunk holes that are rounded. The speed of the paddles are set to move relatively slow to create a gentle processing of the fruit to the must pump. The paddles turn in the opposite direction of the destemming
drum and move the material other than grapes (MOG) out to the waste bin and the holes within the drum allow the berries to fall freely down to the must pump. We want to have some whole berries in an effort to produce carbonic maceration within the grape berries which promotes greater fruit aroma and flavor. Some of the berries will be crushed under the weight of the fruit in the 1/2 ton harvesting bins. And some will be crushed in the must line which can run from 50-100 feet. We hope that through this
gentle process we retain at least 20% whole berries. The berries will break as the skins weaken in the fermenter from extraction.
Check out our YouTube to view the process!
One of my favorite things about bottling is sitting down at the computer with a glass of wine to write tasting notes. I have 3 bottles to review on this amazing Wednesday. When the tough days of the job come around I just have to remind myself of the good ones.
The winemaking crew and I used our very best techniques in making our 2013 Winemaker’s Bloc Red Blend. We selected the best vineyard blocks from within the larger high-end vineyard blocks and hand managed these winemaker blocks in a way to achieve the highest possible quality of fruit. The fermenting wine was protected from oxygen to protect the delicate fruit of each varietal. I selected French oak barrels of the highest quality and managed the maturation process with frequent topping of barrel lots to minimize any head space in the barrels. The resulting wine is I believe truly the best that we can make from our Estate White Bluffs Vineyards and maybe the best wine that I have ever tasted. This wine contains the attributes of a world class wine and will peak in quality with 10 to 20 years of additional aging. I am very excited and proud to release to the public this amazing Washington State White Bluffs vineyard wine of a paramount quality that is rarely found.